“When all think alike, then no one is thinking.” – Walter Lippman
The development of technology plays a highly vibrant part in media evolution from outmoded to contemporary technology presentations for its messages to reach every individual consumers. As a result, the media does changes which are evidently observed among its genre such as films that manifest complex structures to impress audience. Furthermore, it can be perceived that from films’ posters to their end credits, are unseen factors which tend to be highly pedagogical for English language acquisition when imaginatively and seriously handled by language educators. This inventive awareness anchors with the theory of audio- visual literacy which supports the said material for the enhancement of learners’ linguistic and communicative competence. This concept fetches us to a solid idea that every film’s features do not only function as purely entertainment but are possibly noteworthy in language achievement. In other words, every element it possesses may interrelate or unfold instructional strategies. One of its significant components is the end credits known as a list not limited to the cast and crew of a motion picture found at its ending. To be able to explicate its pedagogical value, an example of it is lifted from a movie, Edge of Darkness. The motion picture’s final credits were dissected as inputs for innovative vocabulary teaching through series of constructed tasks’ interplaying with single words, collocations, phrases, clauses, and sentences.
The material is an edited end credits of the film Edge of Darkness produced in 2010 by the film outfit, Warner Bros.
Mel Gibson – Mr. Tom Craven Bojana Novakovic – Emma Craven, Mr. Craven’s daughter Damian Young – Senator Jim Pine Caterina Scorsone – Melissa Wayne Duvall – Chief of Police Gbenga Akinnagbe – Detective Darcy Jones Paul Sparks – Northampton Police Detective Christy Scott Cashman – Detective Vicki Hurd
Gordon Peterson – interviewer
Timothy Sawyer -Dr. Sawyer
Molly Schreiber – reporter
Charles Harrington – neighbor
Lisa Hughes – news anchor
Charlie Alejandro – Boston Police officer
Cindi Alex – driver
Terry Conforti -wife of Senator Pine
Nicholas Grava -basketball player
Dan Marshall – hospital visitor
Robert Masiello -businessman
Gary Roscoe -newsroom editor
Edward Stanley -Radio Reporter
Vyvian Stevens -Tom Craven’s friend
Darryl Wooten -TV News reporter
Adam Zalt -business traveler
Film Director – Martin Campbell
TV and Movie Screenplays writers -William Monahan, Andrew Bovell
and Troy Kennedy-Martin
Producer – Tim Headington and Graham King
Co-executive producers- Jamie Laurenson, Gail Lyon, Lucienne Papon, and Kwame Parker
Musical scorer – Howard Shore
Cinematography – Phil Meheux
Film editor – Stuart Baird
Casting manager- Pam Dixon and Carolyn Pickman
Production Designer -Thomas Sanders
Art Director – Greg berry Greg Berry, Mark Satterlee, and Suzan Wexler
Set Decorator – Jay hart
Costume Designer -Lindy Hemming
Makeup Artist-Marleen Alter
Props man- Gary Alioto (carpenter)
Sound mixer -James Ashwill
Special effects technician -John baker
Visual effects artists -Stella Ampatzi, Suzette Barnett
Stunt performers -Charlie Alejandro, Rick Avery, Dean Bailey Peter Bucossi, and Jared Burke
Film location Manager – Gregory Alpert
Location scout -Gregory Chiodo
Transportation coordinator -Mike Davis
Some recommendations about this teaching process may include but not limited to these enumerated ideas. Primarily, review your institutions ‘curricula if they establish a close significance to the materials and the lessons you are planning to conduct. Your intended material should relate dominantly with the projected outcomes of your organizations’ programs and if they do, examine the end credits thoroughly if they embody the vocabularies to be prioritized. Rip the credits from the whole film which may run for a maximum of three (3) minutes or less to suit the timeframe of your specific lesson. Play and pause the video of it during the discussion. You can simplify the credits according to students’ needs before you deliberate. It is suggested that you construct a diagram or a schema to relate covered words. Teach vocabularies anchored with the strategies being introduced in Cambridge English teachers’ courses such as illustration, pictures, word structures, mime, word association, word classification, context, synonyms/antonyms/hyponyms, definition, translation, realia, among others. In the event that you decide to modify the activities, it is proposed that you base your instructions from the taxonomy of objectives under the (6) six order thinking skills where they fall. By doing this, each activity’s direction will function as your future upshots. Be aware that vocabulary learning deals with words, phrases, collocations and sentences. Produce a copy of the instructional input to be distributed or as an alternative, display a model onscreen while activities are being performed. To add, note that while activities are being completed, varied expressions will emerge to form the entirety of learned languages. When time constraint hampers activity engagement, some tasks may not be covered. It is suggested that you choose the necessary task/s that you can administer under a prescribed teaching session.
The Vocabulary Exercises
These are recommended designed tasks that one can employ, modify or pattern in vocabulary instructions out of a film’s end credits. Additionally, some implications of each activity are practically discussed in relation to how leaners attain vocabularies while the rests of the exercises exude important rudiments of language acquisition as they are completed.
1. Construct two rows and classify female and male actors from the credits. Others were done for you.
1. Bojana Novakovic
2. Lisa Hughes
3. Molly Schreiber
1. Damian Young
2. Wayne Duvall
3. Mel Gibson
This activity implies a simple stage of learning wherein students are made to write, list, tell, point out, repeat or cite details. In relation to vocabulary development, students will be able to realize that words are composed of details, belong to a group, and are either general or specific. In accomplishing this, students are being exposed to the terms that they will soon be involved with.
2. Match Column A and Column B to relate individual cast’s role in the film production.
1. Mel Gibson
2. Robert Masiello
3. Bojana Novakovic
4. Caterina Scorsone
5. Lisa Hughes
6. Molly Schreiber
7. Wayne Duvall
8. Gbenga Akinnagbe
9. Paul Sparks
10. Charles Harrington
a. detective Darcy Jones
c. Emma Craven
d. chief of police
e. a news anchor
I. Northampton Police Detective
j. Mr. Tom Craven
This has the same level with activity number (1) one. Additionally, it provides the thought that each word corresponds to another even if they are represented by persons’ names, similar to the common understanding that each word has corresponding function/s. While they relate each word, there are expressions that will surface to be manipulated in connecting ideas. For example, “Mel Gibson acts as Mr. Craven,” “Mel Gibson’s role is Mr. Craven,” “Mr. Gibson’s role in the film is Mr. Craven.” The words such as, acts, role, in, film emerged due to how ideas are going to be connected adding to the targeted expressions. At this point, we are made to understand that even a single word adds as an acquired vocabulary due to the functions it demonstrates under linguistically framed statements.
3. Fill-in the two columns to relate crew member’s specific role in the film production. Five has been done for you.
Film Production Roles
1. Film Director
2. Screenplay writer
3. Film editor
4. Casting managers
5. Special effects technician
Film Crew Members
1. Martin Campbell
2. William Monahan, Andrew Bovell, and
3. Stuart Baird
4. Pam Dixon and Carolyn Pickman
5. John Baker
This exercise exposes the students to vocabularies regarding the crew’s roles and that relating the positions with the names will activate the utilization of additional languages. Furthermore, while they create relationships, learners are motivated to find out what these positions are all about by teachers’ facilitation. To demonstrate, students connect the film director to Martin Campbell by the notion that both words-the name and the position refer to only one person. As a consequence, the students formulate a statement by the intervention of other expressions. Thus, in the first attempt, “Film director is Martin Campbell.” In the second try, they invert by saying “Martin Campbell is director.” The statements have missing words as noticed. With teachers’ guidance, new expressions may arise leading to the formulation of linguistically correct responses. “The director is Martin Campbell,” or “Martin Campbell is the Director.” In a higher level, they would say, “The director of the film is Martin Campbell,” or “The film’s director is Martin Campbell,” or “The film director of the Edge of Darkness is Martin Campbell.” This activity illustrates an orderly increase of vocabularies through activated words to operate the target lexes.
4. Correct the words used to express the actors and their roles by placing appropriate articles- a, an, or the.
1. Molly Schreiber as an reporter
2. Charles Harrington as an neighbor
3. Lisa Hughes as an news anchor
4. Charlie Alejandro as Boston police officer
5. Cindi Alex as an driver
6. Terry Conforti as wife of senator Pine
7. Nicholas Grava as an basketball player
8. Dan Marshall as an hospital visitor
9. Robert Masiello as businessman
10. Gary Roscoe as an newsroom editor
11. Christy Scott Cashman as a Detective Vicki Hurd
12. Gordon Peterson as a interviewer
13. Timothy Sawyer as the Dr. Sawyer
5. Circle the appropriate word/s or phrases under the enclosed series to complete the sentences.
a. Film is similar to (script, movie, camera, shoot).
b. Cast composes (performance, performers, performing, perform) in the film.
c. Crew delivers (technical supports, acting, transportation, cinematography) generally.
d. Cinematographer is a (cameraman, gripper, scout, writer) who takes shots.
e. Screenplay writer is also a (scriptwriter, film editor, director, producer).
f. End credits are found (between, in the end, in the beginning, in the middle) of a film.
g. Producers (finances, finance, performs, fiancé) film productions.
h. Director mainly does (directing, stunts, producing, acting) assignments.
I. Actors are (performers, actresses, viewers, set decorators) in movies.
j. Opening credits are (found in between the first and the last, found at the end, found in the beginning, found after the middle) of the film.
k. Filming is (making films, done films, planned films, editing films).
l. Makeup artists beautify (directors’, producers’, cameramen’s, cast’s) faces.
m. Film script is the (story, title, credits, loglines) of the movie.
n. Stars are the (main actors, stunts, extras, locations) performing in films.
o. Film outfit is a (company, costumes, costume, musical score) of movies.
p. Musical scorer provides (background music, story, shots, posters) for the film.
6. Classify the words according to names of jobs, skills, and film materials or equipment and write statements using them according to their given forms.
(1) cinematography (2) cinematographer (3) decorating (4) acting (5) casting (6) scouting (7) scripts (8) director (9) directing (10) Editing (11) animating (12) special effects director (13) movie camera (14) coordinating (15) film editor
7. Complete the sentences using the given end credits- related words.
directed -directs- direct- directing- films- filmed- filming- film editing-
film edition- direction – see a film- who’s in- stars- starred-producers-
script- film location- makeup artist- musical scorer- casting director- set decorator
1. Motion pictures are also known as ________.
2. The film______________ academy award-wining actors a year ago.
3. Did Martin Campbell________ that acclaimed movie?
4. A director _________ how actors will perform.
5. He is ________ the current film.
6. He ________ the famous movie Edge of Darkness in 2010.
7. ___________support film making financially. producer
8. The cast and crew are now ___________ the movie in Australia.
9. That was________ in Italy.
10. After he carefully did _______________, the motion picture was shown.
11. He showed an outstanding ____________. Critics praised his film.
12. Actors have to memorize the dialogues found in the __________.
13. My brother wanted to ________ about the space.
14. Charlize Theron ________ as an underdog friend in her current film.
15. Please see the _____________. Something is wrong with your hair.
16. The ___________should match the music with the film’s theme.
17. The ___________found performers that can justify the given roles.
18. __________ this movie? Could it be Kevin Costner?
19. He studied__________in London.
20. Location managers search for _________.
21. ________don’t have serious flaws.
8. Read the position- job connected words. Mark √ when you agree and × if you disagree.
(1)director-directs film (2) producer-producing film (3) actor-acting roles (4) screenplay writer-writing film script (5) makeup artist- decorating sets (6) film editor- writing script (7) cinematographer-taking shots (8) casting manager-editing films (9) producer-editing screenplays (10) art director- managing film setting (12) set decorator-transporting crew (13) costume designer-designing outfits (14) sound mixer- combining sounds (15) special effects technician -creating effects (16) stunt performers -doing film tricks (17) film location manager- deciding actors to play roles (18) musical scorer- finding places to film (19) location scout-searching for places to shoot (20) transportation coordinator -moving crews from one location to another to shoot.
9. Correct the factual mistakes if there are any in the sentences below.
a. The producers are the performers in the film’s story.
b. The director writes the screenplay.
c. The makeup artist takes shots in film making.
d. The film editor looks for talents to perform roles.
e. A movie outfit is a company where products are made.
f. Props men do film directing jobs.
g. Set decorators furnish shooting settings to look like they are real.
h. Costume designers belong to the cast.
I. Sound mixers combine needed music during the editing of films.
j. Visual effects technician scout for places to shoot movies.
k. Stunt performers provide visual effects in the film.
l. Scriptwriters create film stories.
m. Warner Bros. is a film outfit.
10. Transform the given verbs into nouns.
(1) directing (2) cinematographic (3) scripting (4) producing (5) edited (6) decorated (7) scored (8) starring (9) filmed (10) write (11) designed (12) transported (13) mixed (14) scouted (15) shoot (16) visualizing (17) performer (18) performed (19) located (20) manages
11. Transform the given nouns into verbs.
(1) producer (2) director (3) score (4) script (5) decorator (6) edition (7) script (8) editor (9) film (10) location (11) star (12) direction (13) animator (14) decorator (15) location (16) costume (17) manager (18) mixer (19) coordinator (20) actor
12. Create a brief definition by using the given words. Use present simple tenses and be able to supply some missing prepositions.
1. A scriptwriter/ write/ script/ films.
2. A director/ direct / actors/films.
3. A cameraman/take/shots/ make/films.
4. Set decorators/ enhances/ beginning / end/ settings.
5. Producers/finances/ the making/ films.
13. Find the words that best complete the phrases from the list. Be guided by the enclosed word/s in each number and the prepositions that signal the correct missing expressions.
Princess Latifah – a biographical film- film making-a raging dragon- urban Australia -Meryl Streep- Winter- the Oscars- daybreak- 20th Century Fox- 1977- a burning building-Martin Scorsese- a witch-films
1. Filming in (season )
2. Filming at (unspecified time )
3. Produced by (outfit or production)
4. Directed in (specified time)
5. Performed a stunt in (film scene)
6. Decorated a set for ( director’s name)
7. Was cast as (role)
8. Starred in (film title)
9. Scripted the story of (type of film)
10. A degree in (a specialization)
11. Special effects of (animated character)
12. Shot the film in (specific place)
13. Designed costume of (an actress)
14. A film that was nominated at ( award-giving body)
15. Acted in (media genre)
14. Complete the missing words in the dialogue. Be guided by the end credits’ contents.
Ali: What’s on at the cinema today?
Fahad: There’s a film on called _____________.
Ali: What kind of _______is it?
Fahad: It’s a suspense thriller.
Ali: Who are in it?
Fahad: ____________ and__________ among other
Ali: What film outfit is it?
Fahad: It’s from _________________.
Ali: Tell me more about the movie.
Fahad: It has a good___________for it features outstanding camera
works from _________________.
Ali: He’s really a talented _____________.
Ali: Who wrote the _______________ of it?
Fahad: They’re _________. ________, and_________.
These three are skilled screenplay writers.
Ali: Okay, let’s see that film tomorrow.
Fahad: See you there.
15. Underline the correct meaning of each given statement.
1. 4 years ago, he did a BA in Film Directing degree successfully at Texas State University.
a. He studied film directing for three years at TSU.
b. He had a seminar in film directing at TSU.
c. He’s studying at Texas State University.
d. He studied and attained BA degree in Film Directing at TSU.
2. The scriptwriter wrote a script revolving around the theme of war.
a. The film’s story is about war.
b. The film’s story will be about war.
c. The film’s subject is on war.
d. Both a and c
3. He starred as a patriot in an award-winning motion picture in 2014.
a. He was with a patriot in a 2014 film.
b. His role was a patriot in an acclaimed film in 2014.
c. His performance was too much of a patriot in 2014.
d. Both a and b.
4. Cinematographic works result to audiovisuals.
a. Cinematographic works cater to the hearing and sights of audience.
b. Cinematographic works create photographs only.
c. Cinematographic works are understood using the eyes and ears.
d. Both a and c.
5. Film crew composes mainly technical support in film making.
a. Film crew performs basically supporting roles film making.
b. Film crew performs major and supporting roles in film making
c. Film crew does mainly mechanical backup in film making.
d. Both a and c
6. The stuntman covered-up a stunt for the actor.
a. The stuntman and the actor did a stunt together.
b. The stuntman substituted the stunt of the actor.
c. The actor did a stunt for the stuntman who failed to perform.
d. The actor was given a covered gift by the stuntman.
16. Complete the paragraph by placing the appropriate words in the blanks. Read the film credits before deciding responses from the provided list.
-film editor-story-credit-crew-casting managers- special effects-directed-producers- screenplays- film- performers-stars-cast- location manager- cinematography- Suzette Barnett
This _________ (1) is entitled Edge of Darkness shot in 2010. Its_______ (2) are composed of cast and __________ (3). The cast composes the __________(4) of the film while the crew is responsible for the different production’s technical part. The ________ (5) includes Mel Gibson and Bojana Novakovic as father and daughter. It was __________ (6) by Martin Campbell in cooperation with Tim Headington and Graham King as _______. The film had TV and movie ________ (7) which were written by William Monahan, Andrew Bovell and Troy Kennedy-Martin. Also, this movie contained outstanding camera works of Phil Meheux which showcased his skill in ____________ (8). Being the ________(9), Stuart Baird made it a point that the film runs sequentially for audience to understand the __________(10) during the final editing. It was also made successfully through Pam Dixon and Carolyn Pickman as ____________ (11) who cast fine________ (12) that can truly justify given roles. In terms of ___________ (13), the featured scenes were so real due to the artistic craft of Stella Ampatzi and___________ (14). Finally, Gregory Alpert as a ____________ (15) added impact to the movie through great locations that established the story’s theme and real-life settings.
17. Create hyponyms of the given words then deliver a talk about any of these.
(1) Film ( 2) actors (3) cast (4) crew (5) film outfits
18. Construct a movie poster by writing the cast and crew then deliver a talk regarding their positions and roles.
While it is observed that these several activities expose students to varied terms in film making manifesting content-based language learning approach, the intrusion of other expressions in the employment of this type of material aids to broaden the linguistic scope by allowing more words, phrases, collocations and sentences that aren’t limited to this field. Consider the fact that while vocabularies are learned, many essential language points for the completion of the given tasks interfere. The teachers’ strategic measures of incorporating these surfacing expressions could yield students’ varied languages in which they can further extend to garner additional lexes supported by other naturally developing terminologies that are communicatively probable. These prevailing situations shouldn’t be ignored due to their content and functional rudiments in coining words and statements linguistically. Likewise, repetitions of words that recur in the exercises were created primarily for learners’ language exposures to give way for comprehension.
Source of edited film credit:
There are unseen rudiments that make films as interesting learning materials. Among these elements are the end credits which a teacher can operate creatively to augment learners’ vocabulary proficiency. It is believed that employing it as a teaching springboard may result to students” linguistic abilities such as to classify, define, differentiate, identify, transform, supply missing words, recognize word similarities and opposites; determine proper tenses, grammatical and factual mistakes; apply hyponyms and word classifications on vocabularies, and construct version of a given material for oral delivery. The ingenuity of employing the said input strives to achieve how film credits manifest pedagogical relevance created by innovative teachers to be adjustably administered under varied ESL learners’ settings.
This concept produces series of exercises which can be patterned, model, employed, or modified for ESL learners. It is further suggested that teachers should always abide on the objectives of their institutional language curriculum before they deal with whatever innovation they can create to suit the needs of their learners. If mandated objectives are matched with creativity, an effective language teaching will most likely be achieved with the reinforcement of curriculum developers’ positive judgement and encouragement towards classroom teachers’ resourcefully-derived models.